Thursday, April 10, 2008


In order to enter this surreal space, visitors will begin at the land station. This 120m woven, semicircular cylinder will arch over a multi-storey building.
Currently under construction in Dubai, Hydropolis is the world's first luxury underwater hotel. It will include three elements: the land station, where guests will be welcomed, the connecting tunnel, which will transport people by train to the main area of the hotel, and the 220 suites within the submarine leisure complex. It is one of the largest contemporary construction projects in the world, covering an area of 260 hectares, about the size of London's Hyde Park.
"Hydropolis is not a project; it's a passion," enthuses Joachim Hauser, the developer and designer of the hotel. His futuristic vision is about to take shape 20m below the surface of the Arabian Gulf, just off the Jumeirah Beach coastline in Dubai. The £300 million, 220-suite hotel is due to open at the end of 2007 and will incorporate a host of innovations that will take it far beyond the original blueprint for an underwater complex worthy of Jules Verne.
There are only a few locations in the world where such a grandiose dream could be realised. A high proportion of today's architectural marvels are materialising like fanciful mirages from the desert sands. We have come to expect extravagant enterprises to be mounted in the Middle East, and especially in Dubai. "This venture could only be born here in Dubai," says Hauser. "It [has] a very open-minded, international community - and that's what makes it so special."
The land on which Hydropolis is being built belongs to His Highness General Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Crown Prince of Dubai. It was his last free beach property on this stretch of coast. The project is a fantastic one, yet Sheikh Mohammed's success record with comparable schemes instils confidence that science fiction can become fact. With his support, several companies have been formed to kick-start this phenomenal project, and around 150 firms are currently involved.

Dubai's World-Beating Buildings
A building boom in the emirate has led to a whole host of chart breakers, in categories including highest apartment, biggest mall, and one of the world's most unique resorts
HydropolisJoachim Hauser. This hotel, the world's first underwater luxury resort, brings new meaning to the "ocean-view room." Situated 66 feet below the surface of the Persian Gulf, Hydropolis will feature 220 guest suites. Reinforced by concrete and steel, its Plexiglas walls and bubble-shaped dome ceilings offer sights of fish and other sea creatures. It's scheduled to open in late 2007. The Palm IslandsAl Nakheel Properties. The three artificial islands that make up the Palm (comprising the Palm Jumeirah, the Palm Jebel Ali, and the Palm Deira) are the world's biggest man-made islands. Each was built from a staggering 1 billion cubic meters of dredged sand and stone, taken from Dubai's sea bed and configured into individual islands and surrounding breakwaters. The complex will house a variety of tourist attractions, ranging from spas and diving sites to apartments and theaters. The entire complex is designed to collectively resemble a date palm tree when seen from the sky.

The WorldAl Nakheel Properties
Ever wish the world was smaller? This group of more than 250 man-made islands was designed to resemble the entire world when seen from the air. The islands, which range from 250,000 to 900,000 square feet, can be bought by individual developers or private owners -- starting at $6.85 million. The only way to get between each island is by boat...or yacht, given the clientele. A notable engineering feat: The project incorporates two protective breakwaters to protect the islands from waves, consisting of one submerged reef (the outer breakwater) and an above-water structure (the inner breakwater).

Ski DubaiF + A Architects
When one thinks of a vacation in Dubai, the first images that might to come to mind are sun and sand. Now add snow. Two feet of snow, topped with a daily layer of fresh powder, to be exact -- thanks to the system of 23 blast coolers and snow guns inside Ski Dubai. It might be 135 degrees Fahrenheit outdoors, but inside the 32,290 square-foot, $275 million structure, visitors ski and snowboard. The heavily insulated facility also includes the world's largest indoor snow park, offering 9,842 square feet for sledding or bobsledding. Dubai City,United Arab EmiratesArticles and Pictures collected by Rick ArcherFirst Published: May, 2006Last Update: January 2008 Is this a mirage in the Middle East? Seemingly out of nowhere emerges an ultra-modern city in the middle of a desert. Dubai City is currently undergoing an unbelievable transformation right in the heart of the Arab world. Dubai, population one million, produces some of the best modern architecture in the world. Considered the world's fastest growing city, it is estimated that there are 90 billion dollars worth of projects being built in Dubai City right this minute. Using the success of our own Las Vegas as a model that a hostile environment can be tamed to meet man’s will, there is one fairy tale structure after another being built. Among the accomplishments are the Burj Al Arab Hotel, considered the world’s most expensive and beautiful hotel. Nearby you can see the Burj Dubai Tower. When it is completed in 2008, it will become the world’s tallest building. In the middle of the desert you can see the world’s largest theme park being built. Known as “Dubailand”, when finished in 2009 it will feature full size Jurassic Park-style dinosaur recreations among other things. Or you can visit the world’s biggest ski dome at the Mall of the Emirates. That’s right, they are building a ski slope in the middle of the desert. And you can go to the shores of the Persian Gulf and view fantastic man-made islands featuring some of the most
expensive houses in the entire world. Dubai City is definitely something out of a science fiction novel. In fact, I wouldn’t be surprised if you thought I was making this up! Recently my friend Carol Gafford sent me some amazing pictures. Definitely do yourself a favor and go look for yourself! Dubai is already the home to Burj Al Arab, the world's tallest hotel and to Emirates Towers, the tallest all-residential building in the world. In 2008 these two structures will be joined by the 'Burj Dubai' which when finished will become the world's tallest building. While the skyline is not so dense, each building is a marvel all on its own. The individual buildings in this city are by far the greatest examples of modern architectural accomplishments. All seven structures in this city at over 200 meters tall were built in 1999 or later - that's how new this city is. Dubai City is located on the shores of the Persian Gulf. It is the capital of Dubai which is one of seven "Emirates" or states that form a country known as the United Arab Emirates. The 'Emirate of Dubai' is about the size of America's Rhode Island. Dubai City does not have a particularly long history. Since it is located in an unbelievably harsh terrain, there have been very few battles fought here since no one wanted any part of this land!Dubai first gained distinction in the 1800s as a stopover for ships making their way to and from England to India. Dubai was under the protection of the British Empire until 1971 when Britain left the area peacefully. Shortly after, oil was discovered just off the coast. Suddenly Dubai was rich beyond anyone's wildest imagination. It was like winning the lottery. Dubai is a very unusual city for many reasons. The majority of its population is from "somewhere else". Citizens of the UAE are in a distinct minority. Naturally the Muslim religion predominates, but apparently religious tolerance is very high in this area which is rather unusual given the state of the world today. As a result, people of all religions feel welcome here. One fascinating part of this bizarre desert city is the unbelievable construction boom. Since 2000, Dubai's municipality has initiated a plethora of construction phases and plans across the entire city of Dubai. In many areas, it is not easy to see Dubai's sky without at least one crane in your view; some say 16% of the world's large construction cranes reside in Dubai. Construction in Dubai and the UAE in general is being done at a much faster process than in any Western country. This is partly because laborers from the Indian subcontinent accept lower wages than those from other countries.Ever since Dubai was flooded by the increase of population during the early days of oil, housing has been difficult to obtain. That is when the novel idea of building homes on artificial islands out in the middle of the water was developed. One of the first developments was "Jumeira Palm Island" pictured at right. Then came "The World", a series of man-made islands with homes that only the mega-rich could ever hope to afford. Ownership of an island home at "The World" is considered just as desirable as a home in Aspen, Monaco, and other favorite hangouts of the Rich and Famous. The main reason for the construction boom in Dubai is its drive to diversify the economy. The Dubai government does not want to depend on its oil reserves which are largely believed to become exhausted by 2010. Accordingly Dubai City has diversified its economy to attract revenues in the form of expanding commercial and corporate activity. Tourism is being promoted at a staggering rate with the construction of Dubailand and other projects that include the making of mammoth shopping malls, theme parks, resorts, stadiums and other various tourist attractions. They even have a ski slope under construction. The concept seems completely preposterous until one considers a certain city in the USA known as "Las Vegas". When you factor in a considerable amount of gambling and prostitution - activities that are practically unthinkable in other Arab countries, the parallels to Las Vegas are inescap Dubai plans first rotating skyscraper (USA Today)Posted 11/29/2006 DUBAI, United Arab Emirates (AP) — The Arab city with the palm-shaped islands and the sail-shaped hotel is adding to its eclectic skyline by building the world's first rotating skyscraper, a 30-story apartment tower that revolves on its base.The tower, announced Wednesday, will use the Persian Gulf's abundant sunshine to power the building's slow rotation that brings it full circle once a week, said Nick Cooper, a British engineer designing the rotation mechanism."This will be a fair building," said Cooper, of M.G. Bennett and Associates Ltd. of Rotherham, England. "Everybody will have the same views for the same amount of time, so you won't have certain rooms with the best view."The 80,000-ton building with 200 apartments will sit on a giant bearing 30 yards in diameter, coated with a nearly frictionless polymer, Cooper said. Twenty small electric engines will turn the building a few degrees each hour, Cooper said."It will be indexing around on the hour," Cooper said. "It moves very slowly. It's not a theme park ride."But a theme park's manmade lakes, malls and simulated dinosaur park will be the primary view from the so-called Time Residences. The developer plans to complete the structure by 2009 as a centerpiece in the giant Dubailand amusement park now under construction.

Work on the rotating tower is to begin in June 2007.
Cooper's previous rotating projects include the drill machine that bored the English Channel Tunnel and a rotating rock crushing unit used in giant mining operations.Dubai has used a slew of announcements of iconic project to generate publicity. Most — but not all — end up being built. The city's three palm shaped islands are in various states of completion. The smallest is nearly finished while construction of the largest has been halted.Other improbable projects have been scrapped or delayed, including a heavily touted underwater hotel that was canceled.Plans call for the rotating building to incorporate a swimming pool and a crescent-shaped "moon lounge" on the rooftop, with a theater and observatory."Not only will it defy the laws of gravity and momentum, but also it stands to redefine the standards for luxury living in the region and the world," said Tav Singh of Dubai Property Ring. Dubai, a place that represents what happens when a few people have way, way too much money, is going soon be home to Hydropolis, the world's first underwater luxury hotel. Costing nearly $590 million to build, the 220-suite hotel should be completed in December. I don't know about you guys, but every movie I've seen about people living underwater ends with aliens arriving or a giant squid attacking or the Russians shooting off a nuke or something. I'll stick to staying on dry land, thanks. Aerial View of the Land-Sea connection to Hydropolis. (Editor's Note: Bad news. When I researched the Internet for information on the Rotating Skyscraper in March 2007, I found a USA Today article that said, "Other improbable projects in Dubai have been scrapped or delayed, including a heavily touted underwater hotel that was canceled." Too bad. Like the desert ski slope, this underwater hotel was a project the world desperately needed. The design architect, Adrian Smith, felt that the upper-most section of the building did not culminate elegantly with the rest of the structure, so he sought and received approval to increase it to the currently planned height. It has been explicitly stated that this change did not include any added floors, which is fitting with Smith's attempts to make the crown more slender. However, the top of the tower will be a steel frame structure, unlike the lower portion's reinforced concrete. The developer, Emaar, has stated this steel section may be extended to beat any other tower to the title of tallest; however, once the tower is complete the height cannot be changed. The exterior cladding of Burj Dubai will consist of reflective glazing with aluminium and textured stainless steel spandrel panels with vertical tubular fins of stainless steel. The cladding system is designed to withstand Dubai's extreme summer temperatures. The interior will be decorated by Giorgio Armani. An Armani Hotel (the first of its kind) will occupy the lower 37 floors. Floors 45 through 108 will have 700 private apartments on 64 floors (which, according to the developer, sold out within eight hours of going on sale). Corporate offices and suites will fill most of the remaining floors, except for a 123rd floor lobby and 124th floor (about 440 metres (1,444 ft)) indoor/outdoor observation deck. The spire will also hold communications equipment. An outdoor zero-entry swimming pool will be located on the 78th floor of the tower. It will also feature the world's fastest elevator, rising and descending at 18 m/s (40 mph). The world's current fastest elevator (in the Taipei 101) travels at 16.83 m/s (37.6 mph). Engineers had considered installing the world's first triple-decker elevators, but the final design calls for double-deck elevators. A total of 56 elevators will be installed that can carry 42 people at a time. Engineers rotated the building 120 degrees from its original layout to reduce stress from prevailing winds. Over 45,000 m³(58,900 cu yd) of concrete, weighing more than 110,000 tonnes (121,000 ST/108,000 LT) were used to construct the concrete and steel foundation, which features 192 piles buried more than 50 m (164 ft) deep. Burj Dubai has been designed to be the centerpiece of a large-scale, mixed-use development that will include 30,000 homes, nine hotels such as the Burj Dubai Lake Hotel & Serviced Apartments, 0.03 km² (0.01 sq mi) of parkland, at least 19 residential towers, the Dubai Mall, and the 0.12 km² (0.05 sq mi) man-made Burj Dubai Lake. Burj Dubai will cost US$ 800 million to build and the entire 2 km² (0.77 sq mi) development will cost around US$ 20 billion. The silvery glass-sheathed concrete building will give the title of Earth's tallest free-standing structure to the Middle East — a title not held by the region since 1311 AD when Lincoln Cathedral in England surpassed the height of the Great Pyramid of Giza, which had held the title for almost four millennia. The decision to build Burj Dubai is reportedly based on the government's decision to diversify from a trade-based economy to one that is service- and tourism-oriented. According to officials, it is necessary for projects like Burj Dubai to be built in the city to garner more international recognition, and hence investment. "He [Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum] wanted to put Dubai on the map with something really sensational," said Jacqui Josephson, a tourism and VIP delegations executive at Nakheel Properties.

Burj Dubai in December 2007
Burj Dubai is made from reinforced concrete. As construction of the tower progresses, it becomes increasingly difficult to vertically pump the thousands of cubic metres of concrete that are required. The previous record for pumping concrete on any project was set during the extension of the Riva del Garda Hydroelectric Power Plant in Italy in 1994, when concrete was pumped to a height of 532 m (1,745 ft). Burj Dubai now holds this record as of August 19, 2007, as it has a height of 536.1 m (1,759 ft), to hold the record for concrete pumping on any project; and as of October 2, 2007 concrete was pumped to a delivery height of 588 m (1,929 ft). Special mixes of concrete are made to withstand the extreme pressures of the massive weight of the tower; each batch of concrete is tested and checked to see whether it can withstand certain pressures. The head of Concrete Quality Checking on the Burj Dubai project is Alam Feroze, who is in charge of concrete on the whole project. The concrete pumps, pipelines and booms are provided by Putzmeister AG, of Aichtal, Germany. As the consistency of the concrete on the project is essential, it was difficult to create a concrete that could withstand the thousands of tonnes bearing down on it, but also to withstand Gulf temperatures that can reach +50 °C (122 °F). To combat this problem, the concrete is not poured during the day. Instead, ice is added to the mixture and it is poured at night when it is cooler and the humidity is higher. A cooler concrete mixture cures evenly throughout and therefore is less likely to set too quickly and crack. Any significant cracks could put the whole project in jeopardy. Burj Dubai is being built primarily by immigrant engineers and workers from Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, China and the Philippines. Press reports indicate that skilled carpenters at the site earn US$7.60 (£4.34)/day, and laborers earn US$4.00 (£2.84). Unions were forbidden in the United Arab Emirates up until recently, when the government announced steps to allow construction unions. On March 21, 2006, workers upset over low wages and poor working conditions rioted, damaging cars, offices, computers, and construction equipment. A Dubai Interior Ministry official said the rioters caused approximately US$1m (£488k) in damage. Most workers returned the following day but refused to work. Workers building a new terminal at Dubai International Airport also joined that day's strike action. The United Arab Emirates dirham's close connection with the low US Dollar, and the increased cost-of-living in the region, has made it increasingly difficult for immigrant construction workers to survive on their wages. An offer by the UAE government in June 2007 to fly home illegal immigrant workers free-of-charge, with no questions asked, was met with overwhelming demand, further threatening the supply of workers on the Burj Dubai and other Dubai construction projects.


Dinding direka bentuk sebagai komponen struktur yang dibina pugak. Bahan binaan dinding ialah bata, konkrit, kayu, keluli ataupun komposit. Dinding berfungsi untuk memberi perlindungan daripada kesan cuaca atau sebagai pembahagian bangunan pada ruang dan bilik.

Dinding terbahagi kepada tiga jenis, iaitu:
I. Dinding Panel
II. Dinding Tanggung Beban
III. Dinding Monolit

Kini dinding yang dibina daripada bata lebih popular, namun bahan lain seperti konkrit, kayu dan logam juga boleh digunakan. Ini bergantung pada jenis bangunan dan bahagian dinding yang dibina.Terdapat dua jenis dinding iaitu dinding satu bata (dinding galas beban) dan dinding setengah bata (dinding galas tanpa beban.) Dinding bata boleh dibina dengan dua kaedah, iaitu dinding padu dan dinding berongga. Dinding bata berongga dibina bertujuan supaya dapat menyerap bunyi dan kalis suhu yang terlalu panas atau sejuk. Kekuatan dinding bata adalah bergantung pada kaedah susunan bata dan mortar yang digunakan. Bata disusun secara berlapis dan berlekap dan perlu dielakkan sambungan tegak secara berterusan.

Dinding dibina bertujuan untuk melindungi manusia atau harta benda dalam bangunan daripada cuaca seperti hujan, panas, ribut, suhu terlalu panas atau terlalu sejuk. Dinding juga berfungsi untuk melindungi bangunan daripada penceroboh.

1. Kestabilan
Pembinaan dinding mestilah kukuh dan stabil supaya tidak runtuh. Kestabilan dinding bergantung pada binaan asas dan pusat gravitinya.

2. Kekuatan
Dinding mestilah berupaya menanggung beban, menahan daya mampatan dan tegangan. Kekuatan sesebuah dinding adalah bergantung pada bahan dan kaedah yang digunakan.

3. Tahan cuaca
Dinding mestilah berupaya menahan suhu yang terlalu sejuk dan panas serta dapat merintangi air hujan daripada masuk ke dalam. Ciri ini juga adalah bergantung pada bahan dan kaedah yang digunakan.

4. Rintangan kebakaran
Dinding juga perlu berupaya merintangi kebakaran. Ia bergantung pada jenis dan mutu bahan yang digunakan. Rintangan yang diberikan oleh unsure-unsur sesuatu struktur terhadap keruntuhan, penelusan api dan dan pengaliran haba semasa kebakaran dinyatakan dalam satu tempoh masa tertentu iaitu dari satu setengah hingga keenam jam.

Masa-masa rintangan yang berlainan bergantung pada saiz, keadaan dan penggunaan bangunan yang terlibat supaya masa rintangan kebakaran oleh unsur adalah mencukupi untuk penghuni menyelamatkan diri semasa kebakaran.

5. Rintangan kepada pengaliran dan penyerapan bunyi
Kebisingan dari luar akan mengganggu keselesaan dan ketenteraman penghuni didalam bangunan. Oleh itu dinding perlu berupaya menyerap bunyi. Pemilihan bahan dan kaedah binaan memainkan peranan penting dalam ciri ini.

Untuk mengelakkan pembentukan pembalikan bunyi ini maka bahan penyerap bunyi hendaklah di sediakan pada dinding dan lantai sepertu akustik atau tirai untuk menyerap gelombang bunyi.

Dinding satu bata juga turut dikenali sebagai dinding galas beban. Dinding jenis ini dibina untuk menanggung beban selain beban dinding sendiri. Semua beban akan ditanggung oleh dinding sebelum dipindah kepada asas. Ketebalan dinding jenis ini biasanya tidak kurang daripada satu bata atau 225mm (9”). Pembinaan dinding satu bata juga perlu menggunakan tetulang atau digabungkan dengan tiang untuk mengukuhkan kedudukannya.

Dinding ½ bata juga turut dikenali sebagai dinding galas tanpa beban. Dinding jenis ini tidak menanggung beban selain beban dinding sendiri. Dinding ini di bina pada bangunan yang mempunyai rangka seperti tiang dan rasuk konkrit. Oleh itu semua beban lain akan ditanggung oleh rasuk dan tiang sebelum dipindah kepada asas. Ketebalan dinding jenis ini cukup hanya setengah bata sahaja atau 112.5 mm (4½”) . Dinding jenis ini biasanya dibina dalam ikatan sisi bata.

Dalam membuat pembinaan dinding atau tembok pada sesuatu binaan bangunan, terdapat beberapa faktor yang perlu diambilkira sebelum pembinaan dilakukan , antaranya ialah:

1. Pemilihan bahan-bahan
Pemilihan bahan –bahan yang akan digunakan dalam pembinaan dinding adalah sangat penting kerana ia akan mempengaruhi fungsi-fungsi yang terdapat pada dinding . Antara bahan – bahannya :

(a) Kayu
Kayu banyak digunakan dalam pembinaan ini .Ia terbukti sebagai bahan dinding yang sangat baik bukan sahaja dari segi ketahanannya, keselesaan dan kecantikannya. Ia digunakan pada banyak tempat seperti tropika dan sejuk.

Kayu digunakan untuk membina rangka dinding dan pelapisan dinding (weather board)sebagai dinding luar sementara papan lapis pula digunakan sebagai dinding dalam. Ia banyak digunakan sebagai dinding sekat dalam pembinaan yang berangka konkrit .

Jenis-jenisnya seperti cengal , meranti , resak ,kapur, keruing , dammar minyak dan sebagainya. Penggunaannya adalah mengikut tempat pembinaannya. Contohnya, kayu cengal untuk tempat yang panas dan sejuk manakala meranti sesuai digunakan untuk segala pembinaan bangunan .

(b) Logam
Digunakan sebagai rangka ataupun pelapisan (cladding) dalam pembinaan dinding. Dalam pembinaan dinding sekat untuk pejabat dan dalam bangunan perindustrian,rangka ini boleh didapati manakala pelapisan logam pula didapati di gudang ,berek tentera dan beberapa jenis bangunan perindustrian. Jenisnya terdiri daripada aluminium , besi bergalvani, keratan keluli guling ,bentuk keluli bergelek dan sebagainya.

(c) Konkrit bertetulang
Digunakan untuk membina tembok seperti empangan, kolam, bangunan di bawah aras bumi dan penahan ataupun secara tuang dahulu seperti panel pasang siap yang kini banyak digunakan dalam pembinaan rumah pangsa. Ia dihasilkan dengan menggunakan acuan dan diawet sebelum dipasang.

(d) Bata
Merupakan bahan pembinaan tembok yang meluas digunakan dalam segala pembinaan. Ia berupa tembok bata elok atau tembok bata dilepa .

(e) Blok simen atau konkrit
Ia dihasilkan dalam beberapa bentuk untuk pelbagai kegunaan, antaranya ialah blok padu ,blok berongga, dan blok bersel. Ia juga dihasilkan dengan menggunakan bahan –bahan yang berlainan untuk mencapai sifat –sifat yang dikehendaki seperti blok ringan dan blok padat.

Selain itu, terdapat juga bahan-bahan seperti kaca , papan gentian, papan keras, blok kaca yang digunakan untuk membina dinding dan tembok untuk mendapatkan kesan yang istimewa.

Pelbagai teknik telah diperkenalkan dalam pembinaan dinding. Antaranya :

Pembinaan dinding kayu
Pembinaan dinding kayu melibatkan dua proses iaitu :

a) Pembinaan rangka kayu
Dinding jenis ini boleh didirikan sebagai rangka bangunan kayu ataupun dinding sekat yang berasingan. Kaedahnya diubah mengikut keadaan. Satu rangka mempunyai tiang tegak,tutup tiang,alas tiang,stad,belebas dan rembat yang didirikan dengan kukuh. Kebanyakan sambungan antara bahagian-bahagian kayu disambung secara temu dan dipakukan serong dan menggunakan tanggam tertentu.

b) Pemasangan penutup kayu
Ia mestilah memenuhi syarat –syarat berikut:
i. berdaya menanggung beban sendiri.
ii. memberi rintangan kepada resapan air hujan.
iii. berupaya menanggung tekanan angina yang positif dan negatif.
iv. merintang kemasukan angina.
v. menebat cuaca(panas dan sejuk).
vi. berupaya menebat bunyi.
vii. merintang kebakaran.
viii. bukaan yang cukup untuk cahaya dan udara .
ix. saiz yang sesuai.

Penutup menggunakan papan jalur ataupun papan tindih kasih untuk dinding luar manakala penutup dinding dalam pula, dikemaskan dengan menggunakan papan jalur ,papan panel dan papan gentian seperti kepingan asbestos, papan lapis, papan gypsum, papan serpih.


Konkrit ialah bahan yang dihasilkan daripada simen, batu baur halus, batu baur kasar dan air yang dicampurkan pada nisbah campuran tertentu. Bagi campuran biasa, kadar campuran simen, pasir dan batu baur ditetapkan mengikut nisbah berat atau nisbah isipadu. Walau bagaimanapun, nisbah berat lebih diutamakan.Konkrit digunakan dengan meluas dalam pembinaan bangunan, terutamanya pada tiang, rasuk dan papan lantai. Konkrit juga digunakan dalam pembinaan jambatan, kerja pembentungan, jalan raya, landasan kereta api,empangan, struktur dalam laut dan sebagainya.


1. Sambungan binaan :
sambungan ini dibuat pada tempat di mana kerja konkrit terpaksa dihentikan sementara. Apabila kerja konkrit hendak diteruskan, turapan yang dibuat daripada bancuhan simen dan air perlu disapu pada permukaan konkrit lama sebelum bancuhan konkrit baru ditempatkan. Sambungan tersebut tidak boleh diadakan di sebarangan tempat. Tempat-tempat yang sambungan ini boleh diadakan mestilah mematuhiperaturan yang tertentu. Bagi rasuk dan papak, tempat yang sesuai untuk mengadakan sambunagan bianaan ialah dalam bahagian sepertiga di antara dua penyokongnya, dan bukan di tempat yang berdekatan denagn tiang atau tembok. Bagi tiang pula, sambungan di bawah binaan patut diadakan di tempat yang beberapa sentimeter di bawah simpang rasuk. Ealaun masa untuk mandapan selama dua jam hendaklah dibenarkan sebelum kerja penempatan bancuhan konkrit bagi rasuk dimulakan.

Sambungan pengecutan dan pengembangan:
sambungan ini perlu dibuat kepada sesuatu binaan konkrit yang mengalami perubahn isinya akibat :
1.Pengecutan konkrit semasa membeku dan mengeras.
2.Perubahan cuaca.
3.Perubahan kandungan air.

Sambungan ini mempunyai fungsi mencegah keretakan berlaku pada konkrit
tersebut. Ia dibuat berdasarkan kadar pengecutanyang dianggap antara 6 mm
hingga 12 mm bagi tembok sepanjang 30 m yang dibina dengan konkrit biasa.
Bahan-bahan yang boleh digunakan untuk mengisi sambungan ini ialah kertas
kalis air, bitumen, kepingan kayu keras dan sebagainya.

Bahagian-bahagian binaan biasanya mengambil beberapa tegasan pada masa yang sama. Jenis tegasan yang harus diambil kira dalam rekaan sesuatu struktur ialah :

Tegasan tegangan :
Tegasan ini dihasilkan akibat tarikan. Segala tegasan tegangan yang
dialami oleh konkrit adalah dianggap ditanggung oleh tetulang keluli. Konkrit
biasanya dianggap tidak berupaya menanggung tegasan tegangan semasa
mereka binaan. Tegasan tegangan yang dibenarkan pada bar keluli lembut
tidak melebihi 40 mm diameter ialah 140 N/mm2 .

Tegasan tekanan/ mampatan :
Tegasan yang dihasilkan oleh tekanan dari atas dan bawah. Konkrit adalah dianggap mempunyai keupayaan menaggung tegasan tekanan. Oleh sebab itu, struktur yang berpadu boleh dibina dengan konkrit tanpa tetulang. Kekuatan konkrit menahan tekanan ialah dari 14-21 N/mm2 bagi bancuhan 1: 2 : 4.

Tegasan ricih :
Apabila sesuatu bahagian binaan dibebankan secara melintang
Rasuk sebagai contoh, retak mungkin berlaku akibat ricihan. Keretakan
biasanya berlaku pada tempat daya ricihan yang maksimum. Bagi rasuk, ini
akan berlaku berdekatan dengan penyokongnya pada kedua-dua hujung
rasuk. Cara untuk mengatasi masalah ricihan ialah menggunakan bar
pencekak yang mencangkuk bar tetulang utama.

Tegasan lentur :
Apabila bahagian bangunan dibebankan, tegasan tegangan dan mampatan akan dialami menjadikan bahagian binaan tersebut melentur. Oleh itu, dalam rekaan konkrit, tetulang keluli adalah digunakan untuk menentang tegasan ini.

Kedudukan tetulang dalam sesuatu bianaan hendaklah mematuhi kepada rekaan yang tertentu. Berdasarkan ilmu kejuruteraan struktur, segala tegasan: tegangan, tekanan, ricihan dan lentur hendaklah diambil kira semasa mereka sesuatu binaan. Pada dasarnya, tetulang utama hendaklah ditempatkan di bahagian yang tegasan lentur berlaku untuk menentang daya tersebut.

Apabila bancuhan konkrit ditempatkan ke dalam acuannya, perlulah memastikan bahawa di sekeliling tetulang diliputi dengan konkrit. Penutupan ini dikenali sebagai kulit konkrit (concrete cover ). Kulit konkrit ini mestilah mencukupi supaya tetulangnya tidak muncul dan berkarat. Pada dasarnya, tebal kulit konkrit ini tidak boleh kurang daripada 12.5 mm atau diameter tetulangnya. Tebal kulit konkrit ini boleh ditetapkan dengan menggunakan blok jarak (spacer ) semasa memasangkan acuan konkrit. Blok jarak merupakan kepingan yang dibuat mengikut tebal kulit konkrit yang diperlukan. Kadangkala blok ini juga dihasilkan dengan bahan plastik.


Asas sesebuah struktur bolehlah ditakrifkan sebagai bahagian struktur yang bersentuhan terus dengan tanah. Tanah akan mengalami enapan dan kadangkalanya gagal apabila dibebankan kerana biasanya tanah adalah jauh lebih lemah daripada konkrit, keluli ataupun kayu.

Asas merupakan `alat' yang bertujuan untuk memindahkan beban struktur kepada bumi dengan selamat iaitu selamat dari segi keupayaan tanah dan juga enapan yang tidak melebihi had-had tertentu. Jenis dan saiz sesuatu asas yang digunakan berkait rapat dengan saiz beban yang hendak dipindahkan dan juga kekuatan ricih tanah. Reka bentuk asas adalah satu proses menentukan jenis serta saiz asas dan beban maksimum yang dapat disokongnya untuk sesuatu tanah.

Oleh sebab asas menopang sesuatu struktur sepanjang hayatnya, maka amat penting untuk jurutera mengambil kira semua beban yang akan dialaminya kerana adalah amat sukar untuk mengubah atau membaiki sesuatu asas setelah ianya dibina. Fungsi asas tapak adalah untuk menanggung keseluruhan beban bangunan dan memindahkannya ke lapisan tanah di bawahnya. Asas tapak juga berfungsi untuk menyebarkan beban dari struktur atas pada satu kawasan tangungan bawah tanah yang selamat.

Asas bangunan dibahagikan kepada dua kategori, iaitu:
i. asas cetek, dan
ii. asas dalam

Asas cetek merupakan asas yang menghantar beban struktur kepada tanah berdekatan dengan permukaan bumi. Sementara asas dalam adalah asas yang menghantar beban struktur ke lapisan tanah yang lebih dalam.

Asas-asas cetek (atau rebak) terdiri daripada
(a) asas pad
(b) asas jalur
(c) asas rakit

Asas Pad
Asas-asas ini selalunya dibina untuk menyokong tiang struktur. Asas jenis ini menopang keseluruhan beban untuk sesuatu tiang secara tersendiri (terasing). Asas terebut terdapat dalam berbagai-bagai bentuk seperti bulat, segi empat dan segi empat sama. Reka bentuk asas pad ini melibatkan pengiraan mencari saiz pad yang diperlukan untuk menopang beban yang dikenakan oleh tiang.

1. Penggalian untuk pile cap / asas pad termasuk pemadatan tanah.

2. Pemasangan kotak acuan kepada ‘pile cap’ / asas pad.

3. Pemasangan tetulang kepada ‘pile cap’/ asas pad dan tiangnya.

4. Kerja konkrit kepada ‘pile cap’ / asas pad.

5. Penanggalan kotak acuan pada ‘pile cap’ / asas pad dan pemasangan kotak
kepada tiangnya (stump).

Asas Rakit
Asas ini mungkin diperlukan sekiranya keupayaan galas tanah bawah adalah tersangat rendah, atau dalam kes tiang-tiang struktur dijarakkan tersangat dekat antara satu sama lain dalam kedua-dua arah membujur dan memanjang. Asas jenis ini juga berguna untuk mengurangkan enapan kebezaan yang sangat besar atau dalam keadaan terdapatnya perbezaan yang sangat besar dalam pembebanan tiang tiang struktur. Asas rakit sebenarnya merupakan salah satu daripada jenis asas cetek atau asas rebak. Kegunaan yang paling biasa ialah untuk asas di atas tanah yang mempunyai keupayaan galas yang rendah sekali. Asas rakit ini juga digunakan untuk asas di atas tanah yang mempunyai kebolehmampatan yang sangat berbeza, iaitu untuk menghadkan enapan kebezaan.

(a) Rakit Papak Rata
Asas rakit ini dibina dengan ketebalan yang seragam dan boleh digunakan di atas tanah dengan enapan yang besar tidak dijangka akan berlaku, dan dengan itu sesebuah rakit yang sangat kukuh tidak diperlukan. Satu lapisan jejaring tetulang ditempatkan di bahagian atas dan bawah papak untuk merintang momen lentur yang disebabkan oleh pesongan meleding dan melendut pada sebarang titik dalam papak.

(b) Rakit Sisi Terkukuh
Rakit jenis ini sesuai untuk asas struktur-struktur ringan seperti bangunan satu atau dua tingkat di atas tanah-tanah lembut boleh mampat atau bahan-bahan timbusan bebutir yang longgar. Alur dibina dalam kedua-dua arah membujur dan memanjang dan tiang-tiang ditempatkan pada persilangan alur tersebut.

(c) Rakit Papak dan Alur
Rakit jenis ini digunakan untuk bangunan-bangunan berat dengan kekukuhannya diperlukan untuk menghindar ubah bentuk berlebihan superstruktur yang disebabkan oleh perbezaan dalam kebolehmampatan tanah bawah.

(d) Rakit Tingkat Bawah (Besmen)
Untuk rakit jenis ini, dinding-dinding rakit bertindak sebagai pengukuh kepada asas rakit tersebut. Adakalanya asas-asas rakit ini ditopang di atas cerucuk.Cerucuk-cerucuk ini membantu dalam mengurangkan enapan struktur yang dibina di atas tanah-tanah yang sangat boleh mampat. Dalam keadaan aras air bumi agak tinggi, cerucuk bertindak sebagai pengawal pengapungan.

Keupayaan Galas Asas Rakit
Keupayaan galas asas rakit dapat ditentukan dengan persamaan berikut;

q'f = c' Nc dc sc + Po’ Nq dq sq + 1/2 Bγ’ Nγ dγ sγ
qf = cu Nc dc s c + Po

iaitu nilai-nilai NY, N dan N, serta d dan s ialah faktor pembetulan masing-masing untuk kesan kedalaman dan bentuk.

Reka Bentuk Asas Rakit
Terdapat dua kaedah biasa untuk reka bentuk asas rakit, iaitu:
(a) kaedah tegar biasa
Dalam kaedah ini, rakit diandaikan sebagai tegar sepenuhnya. Tekanan tanah teragih dalam satu garisan lurus dengan sentroid yang sekena dengan garis tindakan beban tiang paduan.

(b) kaedah boleh lentur hampir.
Dalam kaedah ini, tanah diandaikan sebagai setara dengan pegas anjal yang tak terhingga (infinit) jumlahnya.Kadangkala asas ini juga dipanggil sebagai 'asas Winkler'. Parameter amat penting sekali dalam menentukan sama ada asas rakit tersebut harus direka bentuk dengan kaedah tegar biasa atau kaedah boleh lentur hampir. Menurut American Concrete Institute Committee 336 (1988), reka bentuk asas rakit hendaklah dilakukan dengan kaedah tegar biasa sekiranya jarak antara tiang dalam sebuah jalur kurang daripada 1.75/β manakala kaedah boleh lentur hampir hendaklah digunakan sekiranya arak antara tiang ini lebih besar daripada 1.75/β.

Asas Jalur
Asas jalur mangandungi jalur selanjar yang dibuat dari konkrit bagi menanggung dinding galas beban. Sebelum simen Portland diperkenalkan asas jalur biasanya di bina daripada batu bata.
Lebar asas jalur bergantung pada kekuatan galas tanah dan beban di atasnya. Semakin tinggi kekuatan galas tanah semakin kecil lebar asa yang diperlukan untuk beban yang sama. Lebar minimum untuk satu asas jalur ialah 450mm. Asas ini selalunya dibina untuk dinding dinding penggalas beban (lihat rajah 4.6), dan untuk baris tiang yang berjarak tersangat dekat antara satu sama lain sehingga lebih menjimatkan untuk untuk membina asas jalur daripada asas pad.

Asas jalur kecil
Keupayaan galas tanah dan beban di atas asas hanya memerlukan asas jalur yang tidak lebar atau lebar sedikit daripada tebal dinding. Kedalaman tanah adalah sekurang-kurangnya 0.9m.

Asas jalur lebar
Beban di atas asas adalah cukup besar berbanding dengan kekuatan galas tanah. Jadi ia perlulah menggunakan asas yang lebar untuk memindahkan beban.


The Samsung Hub, formerly called 3 Church Street, is a high-rise skyscraper located in the central business district of Si. Located on 3 Church Street, it is situated just next to the Prudential Tower. It is a 30-storey office building development, which includes a 6-storey podium block. It currently sits on 35,000 sq m of land. The development is currently a freehold Grade A office tower.

Samsung Hub was completed in 2005. Firms involved in the development included Chinese Chamber Realty Private Limited, Church Street Properties Private Limited, China Square Holdings Private Limited, CapitaLand Limited, and Samsung Corporation. It was formerly owned by CapitaLand, but the company soon sold the development to Ho Bee Group.
The space in Samsung Hub is owned by the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce, its subsidiary, the Chinese Chamber Realty, and OCBC Bank. Selling of stake In 2007, CapitaLand announced that it was selling its stake in Samsung Hub to the Ho Bee Group for over $140 million. This works out to almost $1,400 per square foot, based on the net lettable area of about 105,000 sq ft involved in the transaction. The space owned by CapitaLand comprises the lowest stack of office floors in the building - from the eighth to 15th floors (the first to seventh floors are used for car parking)

Due to its recent completion in 2005, the building exhibits a post-modern style of architecture, and is built mainly of glass and steel.Usage of quality building materials, such as the heat-strengthened, double-glazed and turquoise-tinted glass was applied during its construction. The average size per floor plate of the building is about 12,500 sqft and it has a total lettable area of 290,000 sq ft.

Tilting incident
On August 2002, a tilt on the building was detected by Samsung Corporation. The building sank 3 mm to 39 mm to one side between August and November of 2002. Although this 0.1 degree tilt, caused by soil settlement, was minimal compared to 8 degrees for the Leaning Tower of Pisa, it could have adversely affected the building's structural stability, resulting in cracks or severe damage had it not been corrected. After discovering the tilt, Samsung immediately initiated rectification efforts. Micropiles were injected to redistribute the weight of the building and to correct the tilt. Owners of neighbouring buildings reassured tenants that their buildings were structurally sound, free from such problems, having been certified by the authorities as fit for occupation. It took a total of 2 years for the rectification work to be completed. Losses due to the construction delay were ameliorated by an agreement between the companies involved, ceding Samsung a portion of the space in the 30-storey tower. Samsung also made "improvements" to the building's facade.